phantom
   The term phantom comes from the Greek noun phantasma, which means ghost or spectre. It was used in 1847 by the British surgeon Walter Cooper Dendy (1794-1871) as a synonym for the term ghost. Seeking to explain the perception ofphantoms by recourse to natural phenomena, Dendy draws up the following classification. Starting from two grand classes, i.e. "ghosts of the mind's eye, or phantasma", and ghosts of the eye, or optical illusion", he conceptualizes ghosts of the mind's eye as either * illusive perceptions (i.e. phantoms mediated by the mind's conversion of natural objects) or *illusive conceptions (i.e. phantoms mediated by the mind's own creation). The second class, ghosts of the eye, is conceptualized by him as being dependent on the laws which govern the material world" (i.e. atmospheric conditions, gases, lenses and mirrors, and diseases of the eye). Dendy's classification may be appreciated as a foreshadowing of the later division of *illusions into *cognitive illusions, * physiological illusions, and * physical illusions. A different use of the term phantom can be found in the work of the German psychiatrist Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828-1899). In 1866 Kahlbaum used it to denote a *centripetal hallucination, i.e. a hallucination mediated primarily by the peripheral parts of the nervous system, and thus conceptualized as being dependent on objective, external stimuli. Kahlbaum divides the class of phantoms into three subclasses, comprising * stable hallucinations, *eretic hallucinations, and * functional hallucinations. The term phantom was used by him in opposition to the term *phantasma or *centrifugal hallucination. He considered both types of hallucination as variants of the overarching class of * direct hallucinations. A third usage of the term phantom is its employment as an abbreviation for the term * phantom limb illusion.
   References
   Dendy, W.C. (1847). The philosophy of mystery. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.
   Kahlbaum, K. (1866). Die Sinnesdelirien. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie und psychischgerichtliche Medizin, 23, 56-78.

Dictionary of Hallucinations. . 2010.

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  • Phantom — can refer to any of the following.Paranormal*A ghost or other apparition * Phantom kangaroo, a type of legendary creatureTechnology*Phantom power, a method for supplying current to devices over signaling cables * A device or test pattern that… …   Wikipedia

  • Phantom — (von gr.: Phantasma, Phantasie) bedeutet Trugbild, unwirkliche Erscheinung, Einbildung oder Gespenst, Geist. Phantom bezeichnet in den Medien: Phantom (1922) von Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Phantom (Comic) von Lee Falk (ab 1936) Das Phantom (1996),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Phantom — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Phantom puede hacer referencia a: La película muda El nuevo fantomas dirigida por F. W. Murnau, estrenada el 10 de noviembre de 1922 en Düsseldorf. La novela Phantom de Susan Kay, que cuenta de nuevo la vida del el… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Phantom — Phan tom, n. [OE. fantome, fantosme, fantesme, OF. fant[^o]me, fr. L. phantasma, Gr. ?, fr. ? to show. See {Fancy}, and cf. {Pha[ e]ton}, {Phantasm}, {Phase}.] That which has only an apparent existence; an apparition; a specter; a phantasm; a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Phantom — Phan tom, a. Being, or of the nature of, a phantom. Phantom isles are floating in the skies. B. Taylor. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • phantom — [fan′təm] n. [ME fantome, fantosme < OFr fantosme < L phantasma: see PHANTASM] 1. something that seems to appear to the sight but has no physical existence; apparition; vision; specter 2. something feared or dreaded 3. something that exists …   English World dictionary

  • Phantom — Sn Trugbild erw. fremd. Erkennbar fremd (18. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus frz. fantôme m., dieses mit unregelmäßiger Formentwicklung aus l. phantasma, aus gr. phántasma, zu gr. phantázesthai erscheinen, sichtbar werden (zu einer Ableitung von gr …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Phantom — (v. gr.), 1) Trugbild als Erzeugniß der Einbildungskraft; 2) (Geburtsh.), s. Fantom …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Phantōm — (griech.), soviel wie Phantasma (s. d.). In der Medizin versteht man unter einem geburtshilflichen P. ein natürliches oder künstliches, mit Leder überzogenes weibliches Becken, das beim Unterricht zur Einübung der Technik der geburtshilflichen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Phantom — Phantōm (grch.), s.v.w. Phantasma; Nachbildung von Körperteilen (Becken, Kopf, Kehlkopf) zur Einübung von Operationen …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Phantom — Phantom, Trug oder Schreckbild, Luftgesicht …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

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