phantom illusion
   The term phantom illusion is indebted to the Greek noun phantasma, which means ghost or spectre. It is used to denote the illusory alteration of the shape and/or orientation of the body, or parts thereof. As demonstrated in myriad experimental configurations, systematic perceptual distortions of the body, as well as changes in the apparent orientation of the body, can be evoked within seconds when muscle vibration is used to generate proprioceptive misinformation about limb position. Some examples of the ensuing phantom illusions are the * illusory arm extension and the * Pinocchio illusion. Vibration-induced phantom illusions were first described in 1972 in two separate and independent publications.
   References
   Eklund, G. (1972). Position sense and state of contraction: The effects of vibration. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 35, 606-611.
   Goodwin, G.M., McCloskey, D.I., Matthews, P.B.C. (1972). The contribution of muscle afferents to kinaesthesia shown by vibration induced illusions of movement and by the effects of paralysing joint afferents. Brain, 95, 705-748.
   Lackner, J.R. (1988). Some proprioceptive influences on the perceptual representation ofbody shape and orientation. Brain, 111, 281-297.

Dictionary of Hallucinations. . 2010.

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