- psilocybin and hallucinations
- The term psilocybin comes from the Greek words psilos (bald) and kubè (head). It refers to an alkaloid of the tryptamine group that can be found in no fewer than 80 species of hallucinogenic mushrooms belonging to the Psilocybe genus (i.e. psilocybin mushrooms, also known as magic mushrooms or Liberty Caps). In addition, psilocybin can be found in genera of mushrooms such as Conocybe, Copelandia, Galerina, Gymnopilus, Inocybe, Panaeolus,and Pluteus.It is a precursor for the hallucinogenic substance psilocin, which is created within the human body by means ofdephosphorylation. The chemical structure of psilocin is related to that of the *hallucinogens bufotenine and dimethyl-tryptamine (DMT), and to the neurotransmit-ter serotonin. Using the criterion of psychoac-tive potential as a guiding principle, psilocin is usually classified as a *deliriant. It is believed to act as a partial agonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin receptors. However, whether this fully explains its working mechanism is unknown. Psilocybin intoxication tends to mediate the onset of * geometric or * complex visual hallucinations within a few minutes after ingestion. These hallucinations may consist of realistic - though often distorted - persons, complex scenes, or complex geometric forms and patterns. *Auditory hallucinations may accompany these *visual hallucinations, which are at their peak some 2h later. Hallucinations in the other sensory modalities may also occur, although they are reported less frequently and in no particular time sequence.*Scenic hallucinations, * out-of-body experiences, *kalopsia, and * time distortions have also been reported. A person intentionally employing psilo-cybin for the purpose of exploring the psyche may be called a * psychonaut.ReferencesRätsch, Chr. (2005). The encyclopedia of psy-choactive plants. Ethnopharmacology and its applications. Translated by Baker, J.R. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.Rudgley, R. (1998). The encyclopaedia of psychoactive substances. London: Little, Brown and Company.
Dictionary of Hallucinations. J.D. Blom. 2010.
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mushrooms and hallucinations — see psilocybin and hallucinations … Dictionary of Hallucinations
psilocin and hallucinations — see psilocybin and hallucinations … Dictionary of Hallucinations
alkaloids and hallucinations — The term alkaloid is indebted to the Latin noun alkali, which in turn stems from the classic Arabic expression al qily, commonly translated as he roasted , or he grilled . The expression al qily is said to refer to the scorched ashes of the… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
Psilocybin mushrooms — (also called psilocybian mushrooms or teónanácatl) are fungi mainly of the psilocybe genus that contain the psychedelic substances psilocybin and psilocin, and occasionally other psychoactive tryptamines. There are multiple colloquial terms for… … Wikipedia
Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants — The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. These classes of psychoactive drugs have in common that they can cause subjective … Wikipedia
flashback, drug related — Also known as flashback phenomenon. The introduction of the term flashback is attributed to the American psychiatrist Mardi Jon Horowitz (b. 1934). Horowitz used the term in 1969 to denote a return of hallucinations, *illusions, or * sensory… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
hallucinogen — Also known as hallucinogenic drug, hallucinogenic substance, magicum, pseudohallucinogen, illusinogen, mysticomimetic, phanerothyme, *psychedelic, psychedelic drug, psychedelic substance, psychotic, psychotomimetic, *phantasticum, and… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
psychedelic — Also referred to as psychedelic drug, psychedelic substance, hallucinogen, hallucinogenic drug, hallucinogenic substance, magicum, pseudo hallucinogen, illusinogen, mysticomimetic, phanerothyme, psychotic, psychotomimetic, phantasticum, and… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
entheogen — The term entheogen comes from the Greek words en (within), theos (god), and generare (to generate, to bring forth). It translates as becoming divine within . The term entheogen refers to a hallucinogen or other psychoactive substance believed… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
drug use — Introduction use of drugs for psychotropic rather than medical purposes. Among the most common psychotropic drugs are opiates ( opium, morphine, heroin), hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline, psilocybin), barbiturates, cocaine, amphetamines,… … Universalium