sleep paralysis and hallucinations
   The term sleep paralysis refers to a transient experience of involuntary immobility immediately prior to falling asleep or upon awakening. It is conceptualized as the intrusion of REM muscle atonia and dream imagery into the waking state. Sleep paralysis may occur either in isolation or in the context of a neurological disease or syndrome (such as narcolepsy). Physiologically, it is associated with sleep-onset REM periods. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), sleep paralysis is classified as a REM-related parasomnia. Cross-sectional surveys indicate that 6-40% of the general population are aware of having had at least one episode of sleep paralysis. During episodes of sleep paralysis, * hypnagogic and * hypnopompic hallucinations may occur. When these are of a frightening nature, they are referred to as * waking-nightmare hallucinations.
   References
   Cheyne, J.A. (2003). Sleep paralysis and the structure of waking-nightmare hallucinations. Dreaming, 13, 163-179.

Dictionary of Hallucinations. . 2010.

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