Also referred to as funnel, alley, cone, and vessel. All five terms were introduced in or shortly before 1928 as more or less synonymous terms by the German-American biological psychologist and philosopher Heinrich Klüver (1897-1979) to denote one of the four "form-constants of " geometric visual hallucinations which may occur during the initial stages ofmescaline intoxication. Klüver uses the term form-constant to denote certain visual forms and elements that "appear in almost all mescal visions". According to him, "many 'atypical' visions are upon close inspection nothing but variations of these form-constants." The examples of the tunnel or funnel shape given by Klüver, based on the observations of different test persons, are rendered by him as follows. " 'Sometimes I seemed to be gazing into a vast hollow revolving vessel, on whose polished concave mother-of-pearl surface the hues were swiftly changing'; 'the field of vision is similar to the interior of a cone the vertex of which is lying in the center of the field directly before the eyes (or vice versa)'; 'vision of a tunnel in copper-brown color... lines seem to converge in the infinite'; 'a large black corridor seen in extremely deep perspective'; 'upon pressure on the closed eyes I saw first an alley in very deep perspective'; 'deep beautiful perspectives... growing into the infinite...'; 'in deep perspective a suite of oriental rooms'; 'extending away from me a long narrow corridor... often looking into cupolas which widen more and more... the cupola became increasingly deeper, more funnel-shaped, narrower'; 'I was standing in a very long and wide tunnel'; 'long narrow funnels... the ends of which appear in the distance as brilliant points... their walls and the perspective effects are in most cases formed by small parallel lines...'; 'a large cylindrical hall'; 'the designs occupied the wall of a colossal cone'; 'the pyramid changes into a luminous cone'." Klüver names the three remaining form-constants "chessboard design, "cobweb figure, and "spiral. In parapsychology, seeing a tunnel shape is sometimes interpreted as a sign of the individual's passage to another plane of existence. According to the American parapsy-chologist Raymond A. Moody, Jr. (b. 1944), for example, seeing a tunnel is a common feature of " near-death experiences (NDEs).
   Klüver, H. (1966). Mescal and Mechanisms ofhallucinations. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
   Moody, R.A. (1975). Life after life. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Dictionary of Hallucinations. . 2010.


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  • tunnel — [ tynɛl ] n. m. • 1825 à propos de l Angleterre; angl. tunnel, du fr. tonnelle (XVIe) « longue voûte en berceau » 1 ♦ Galerie souterraine destinée au passage d une voie de communication (sous un cours d eau, un bras de mer; à travers une… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Tunnel — Tun nel, n. [F. tonnelle a semicircular, wagon headed vault, a tunnel net, an arbor, OF. also tonnel; dim. of tonne a tun; so named from its resemblance to a tun in shape. See {Ton}.] 1. A vessel with a broad mouth at one end, a pipe or tube at… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Tunnel — (engl., »Trichter, Röhre«, v. altfranz. tonnel, Tonne; hierzu die Tafel »Tunnelbau« mit Text), ein wesentlich wagerechter Gang (Stollen) von solchen Abmessungen, daß ein Verkehrsweg (Straße, Schiffahrtkanal, Eisenbahn) durch das Erdinnere geführt …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Tunnel — Tun nel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Tunneled}or {Tunnelled}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Tunneling} or {Tunnelling}.] [1913 Webster] 1. To form into a tunnel, or funnel, or to form like a tunnel; as, to tunnel fibrous plants into nests. Derham. [1913 Webster] 2.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Tunnel — Sm std. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. tunnel, dieses aus afrz. tonnel Tonnengewölbe, Faß , aus gall. tunna.    Ebenso nndl. tunnel, ne. tunnel, nfrz. tunnel, nschw. tunnel, nnorw. tunnel; Tonne. ✎ Krüger (1979), 451; DF 5 (1981), 528… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • tunnel — [tun′əl] n. [ME tonel, a net with wide opening and narrow end < MFr tonnelle, arbor, semicircular vault < OFr tonnel, dim. of tonne, TUN] 1. Obs. a) a flue b) a funnel 2. a passageway, as through a mountain or under a body of water, as for… …   English World dictionary

  • Tunnel — Tun nel, v. i. To make a tunnel; as, to tunnel under a river. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Tunnel — »unter der Erde angelegter, durch einen Berg führender Verkehrsweg«: Das Wort wurde im 19. Jh. aus engl. tunnel »unterirdischer Gang, Stollen; Tunnel« entlehnt, das seinerseits aus afrz. tonnel (= frz. tonnelle) »Tonnengewölbe; Fass« stammt. Dies …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • tunnel — s.m. [dall ingl. tunnel, fr. ant. tonnel (corrisp. al mod. tonneau botte )]. 1. (trasp.) [ferrovia o strada sotterranea o sottomarina ricavata tramite una lunga apertura attraverso un monte o sotto il livello del mare e sim.: il t. sottomarino… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • tunnel — [n] covered passageway adit, burrow, channel, crawl space, crawlway, crosscut, drift, hole, hole in the wall*, mine, passage, pit, shaft, subway, tube, underpass; concepts 509,513 tunnel [v] dig a passage through burrow, excavate, mine, penetrate …   New thesaurus

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