- The term form-constant was coined in or shortly before 1928 by the German-American biological psychologist and philosopher Heinrich Klüver (1897-1979) to denote a recurring geometric element or form that can be observed during the initial stages of * visual hallucinatory experience due to mescaline intoxication. Although Klüver himself stresses the near impossibility of classifying the variety of visual phenomena occurring during the mescal state, he proposes a classification of form-constants comprising (1) *chessboard design (also referred to as grating, lattice, fretwork, filigree, and honeycomb), (2) cobweb figure, (3) tunnel (also referred to as funnel, alley, cone, and vessel), and (4) spiral. As Klüver maintains, "No matter how strong the inter- and intra-individual differences may be, the records are remarkably uniform as to the appearance of... forms and configurations. We may call them form-constants, implying that a certain number of them appear in almost all mescal visions and that many 'atypical' visions are upon close examination nothing but variations of these form-constants." Klüver's form-constants are not exclusively associated with mescaline intoxication. They have been reported in association with the use of other *hallucinogens as well, and also in association with non-drug-related phenomena such as * migraine aura, * aura due to epileptic activity, and * hypoglycaemia. Nor would it seem that Klüver was the first to notice the recurrence of certain forms and patterns in hallucinatory images. As early as 1899, the French physician Pierre Dheur had already reported on various stereotyped patterns of movement and disappearance in * visual hallucinations. An alternative classification of form-constants, referred to as * dimensions of visual imagery, was devised during the early 1970s by the American psychophar-macologists Ronald K. Siegel and Murray E. Jarvik.ReferencesDheur, P. (1899). Les hallucinations volontaires (l'état hallucinatoire). Suivi d'un chapitre sur les hallucinations. Notes manuscrites et inédites du Dr. J. Moreau (de Tours). Paris: Société d'Éditions Scientifiques.ffytche, D H (2007) Visual hallucinatory syndromes: Past, present, and future. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9, 173-189.Klüver, H. (1966). Mescal and Mechanisms of hallucinations. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Siegel, R.K., Jarvik, M.E. (1975). Drug-induced hallucinations in animals and man.In: Hallucinations. Behavior, experience, and theory. Edited by Siegel, R.K., West, L.J. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Dictionary of Hallucinations. J.D. Blom. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Form constant — A form constant is one of several geometric patterns which are recurringly observed during hallucinations and altered states of consciousness. They are also encountered during Lucid Dreaming before the actual dream.HistoryIn 1926, Heinrich Klüver … Wikipedia
Constant folding — and constant propagation are related compiler optimizations used by many modern compilers. An advanced form of constant propagation known as sparse conditional constant propagation can more accurately propagate constants and simultaneously remove … Wikipedia
Constant Nieuwenhuys — Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys (21 July 1920 – 1 August 2005) was a Dutch painter, and one of the foremost innovators of Unitary Urbanism. In 1941, he became deeply interested in the work of Paul Cézanne, Cubism and German Expressionism. He was born… … Wikipedia
Constant Tonegaru — Constant (Constantin) Tonegaru Born February 26, 1919(1919 02 26) Galaţi Died February 10, 1952(1952 02 10) (aged 32) Bucharest Occupation poet, journalist, activist, civil servant … Wikipedia
Constant Change — Studio album by Jose Mari Chan Released December 31, 1989 … Wikipedia
Constant Girard — (La Chaux de Fonds 1825 – 1903 La Chaux de Fonds) was a Swiss watchmaker from the 19th century, who marked his time by his developments in the escapement systems, in particular that of the tourbillon. His most famous watch, the Tourbillon with… … Wikipedia
Constant false alarm rate — (CFAR) detection refers to a common form of adaptive algorithm used in radar systems to detect target returns against a background of noise, clutter and interference. Other detection algorithms are not adaptive. Non adaptive detectors are… … Wikipedia
Constant Fouard — (b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 August 1837, died 1903) was a French ecclesiastical writer. Contents 1 Life 2 Works 3 References 4 External links … Wikipedia
Constant conjunction — is a phrase used in philosophy as a variant or near synonym for causality and induction. It can be construed to contradict a more common phrase: Correlation is not causation. It is often associated with or in constant concomitance with the… … Wikipedia
FORM AND MATTER — (Heb. צוּרָה, ẓurah, and חֹמֶר, ḥomer), according to Aristotle, the two constituents of every physical substance, form being that which makes the substance what it is, and matter being the substratum underlying the form. In substantial change the … Encyclopedia of Judaism