hallucinatory twilight state
   The German term halluzinatorische Dämmerzustand (i.e. hallucinatory twilight state) was introduced in or shortly before 1926 by the German neuropsychiatrist Karl Kleist (1879-1960) to denote a type of * twilight state (i.e. a prolonged episode of clouded or narrowed consciousness during which the affected individual is virtually unaware of his or her surroundings), which is dominated by hallucinations and *illusions. These hallucinations and illusions tend to display a *panoramic character, thus replacing the extra-corporeal environment as perceived through the senses. The hallucinations described in the context of the hallucinatory twilight state are predominantly * visual and * auditory in nature, but *tactile and * somatic hallucinations have been described as well. Kleist suggests a certain similarity between the hallucinations occurring in the context of the hallucinatory twilight state and those occurring in the context of * delirium, including the occurrence of * zoopsia (i.e. the perception of hallucinated animals), and the cooccurrence of general confusion and disorientation. Conceptually as well as phenomenologi-cally, the hallucinatory twilight state would seem to lie on a continuum with conditions such as *dissociation, hysteria, fugue, *hallucinatory epilepsy, postictal confusion, *alcoholic hallucinosis, and delirium.
   References
   Kleist, K. (1926). Episodische Dämmerzustände. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der konstitutionellen Geistesstörungen. Leipzig: Georg Thieme Verlag.

Dictionary of Hallucinations. . 2010.

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