- hyperaroused hallucination
- The term hyperaroused hallucination is indebted to the Greek words huper (to exceed a certain boundary) and arousal (state of alertness and readiness for action). It was probably introduced in 1969 by the American psychophar-macologist Roland Fischer to denote a hallucination that is mediated under the influence of increased sympathetic responsiveness and muscular tension, notably in the context of "psychosis and drug-induced states. Fischer uses the term hyperaroused hallucination in opposition to the term " hypoaroused hallucination. Both notions derive their meaning from the context of a " release model of hallucinatory activity, which attributes the content of hallucinations to subcortical neuronal activity, and its release to either hypo- or hyperarousal. As Fischer maintains, "We may distinguish two types of hallucinatory behaviour: that which increases in intensity when one moves along the perception-hallucination continuum of ergotropic or hyperarousal and that which spiritualizes when a subject departs on the trophotropic or hypoarousal continuum. We contend that although both continua are hallucinatory, there are important differences between them. The physiological substrate of hyperaroused hallucinations may be characterized by heightened sympathetic responsiveness and increased tone of striate muscles - the 'excitation syndrome'. Conversely, the substrate of hypoaroused hallucinations (transcendental meditation) involves increased parasympathetic responsiveness and muscular relaxation."ReferencesFischer, R. (1969). The perception-hallucination continuum, a re-examination. Diseases ofthe Nervous System, 30, 161-171.Fischer, R. (1975). Cartography ofinner space. In: Hallucinations. Behavior, experience, and theory. Edited by Siegel, R.K., West, L.J. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Dictionary of Hallucinations. J.D. Blom. 2010.