- hypoaroused hallucination
- The term hypoaroused hallucination is indebted the Greek prefix hupo (below, beneath) and arousal (state of alertness and readiness for action). It was probably introduced in 1969 by the American psychopharmacologist Roland Fischer to denote a hallucination mediated under the influence of increased parasympathetic responsiveness and muscular relaxation, such as may occur during meditation. Fischer uses the term hypoaroused hallucination in opposition to " hyperaroused hallucination. Both notions derive their meaning from the context of a "release model of hallucinatory activity, which attributes the content of hallucinations to subcortical neu-rophysiological activity, and its release to either hypo- or hyperarousal. As Fischer maintains, "We may distinguish two types of hallucinatory behaviour: that which increases in intensity when one moves along the perception-hallucination continuum of ergotropic or hyperarousal and that which spiritualizes when a subject departs on the trophotropic or hypoarousal continuum. We contend that although both continua are hallucinatory, there are important differences between them. The physiological substrate of hyperaroused hallucinations may be characterized by heightened sympathetic responsiveness and increased tone of striate muscles - the 'excitation syndrome'. Conversely, the substrate of hypoaroused hallucinations (transcendental meditation) involves increased parasympathetic responsiveness and muscular relaxation."ReferencesFischer, R. (1969). The perception-hallucination continuum, a re-examination. Diseases ofthe Nervous System, 30, 161-171.Fischer, R. (1975). Cartography ofinner space. In: Hallucinations. Behavior, experience, and theory. Edited by Siegel, R.K., West, L.J. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Dictionary of Hallucinations. J.D. Blom. 2010.