animals and hallucinations
   It has been suggested that not only humans but also other animals possess the capacity to hallucinate. Although hallucinatory phenomena experienced by animals are even less accessible to scientific research than those in humans, field and laboratory observations of animal reactions to psychoactive substances have led researchers to conclude that animals have the capacity not only to hallucinate but also to develop cravings for and addictions to psychoactive plants and other substances. However, the German-American biological psychologist and philosopher Heinrich Klüver (1897-1979) and others have warned against premature conclusions in this area of research. As noted by Klüver, who carried out numerous experiments with both " psychotomimetic substances and animals, "I am unfortunately aware that the literature nowadays is full of 'hallucinated' cats and monkeys. But a monkey grabbing into the air under the influence of a supposedly 'hallucinogenic' substance does not necessarily grab for hallucinated objects; a monkey who scratches himself does not necessarily itch, and when sticking out his tongue rhythmically does not necessarily have paresthesias. It requires evidence of a sort not easily obtainable to justify such inferences from motor movements or objectively observable changes." Animals whose body parts or excretions are known to produce " hallucinogenic effects in humans are referred to as " psychoactive fauna.
   References
   Klüver, H. (1965). Neurobiology of normal and abnormal perception.In: Psychopathology of perception. Edited by Hoch, P.H., Zubin, J. New York, NY: Grune & Stratton.
   Siegel, R.K., Jarvik, M.E. (1975). Drug-induced hallucinations in animals and man. In: Hallucinations. Behavior, experience, and theory. Edited by Siegel, R.K., West, L.J. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Dictionary of Hallucinations. . 2010.

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