- chemosensory disorders
- Also known as chemosensory deficits and disorders of taste and smell. Traditionally, the group of chemosensory disorders is divided into six broad categories of taste disorders and five categories of smell disorders. The group of taste disorders comprises ageusia, hypogeusia, *dysgeusia, *hypergeusia, *parageusia, and taste agnosia. The group of smell disorders comprises anosmia, hyposmia, *dysosmia (also referred to as parosmia), *hyperosmia, and smell agnosia. The history of taste and smell research, however, yields a rich legacy of additional terms, such as * gustatory hallucination, * olfactory hallucination, *phantosmia (which tends to be used as a synonym for olfactory hallucination), * cacosmia (bad smell), coprosma (the smell of faeces), * agathosma (good smell), crocosmia (the smell of saffron), and diosma (heavenly or divine smell). Etiologically, the chemosensory disorders are associated with a wide variety of conditions, including normal ageing, poor oral hygiene, Alzheimer's disease, local or general medical conditions such as rhinitis, oral candidiasis, nasal polyps, and influenza, as well as the use of certain therapeutics and illicit substances. Pathophysio-logically, the chemosensory disorders are associated with one of three major types of losses, referred to as transport losses, sensory losses, and neural losses. The term transport loss refers to the obstruction of chemical stimuli before these can reach the peripheral taste or smell receptors. Sensory losses are those attributed to damage to the sensory organs themselves. This damage may be caused by a variety of conditions, mechanisms, and substances, including therapeutics, toxic chemicals, radiation therapy, neoplasms, and viral infections. Neural losses are those resulting from damage to the peripheral and/or central neural pathways, including the cortical taste area, and the part of the temporal (primitive) cortex involved in the mediation of smell. Known causes of neural loss include head trauma, neoplasms, and neurosurgical procedures. The term sensori-neural loss is used when a clear distinction between a sensory and neural involvement cannot be made with certainty.ReferencesAckerman, B.H., Kasbekar, N. (1997). Disturbances of taste and smell induced by drugs. Pharmacotherapy, 17, 482—196.Schiffman, S.S., Gatlin, C.A. (1993). Clinical physiology of taste and smell. Annual Review of Nutrition, 13, 405-436.Stearn, W.T. (1993). The gender of the generic name onosma (Boraginaceae). Taxon, 42, 679-681.
Dictionary of Hallucinations. J.D. Blom. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
chemosensory deficits — see chemosensory disorders … Dictionary of Hallucinations
smell disorders — see chemosensory disorders … Dictionary of Hallucinations
taste disorders — see chemosensory disorders … Dictionary of Hallucinations
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gustatory hallucination — Also known as gustatory phantasma and hallucination of taste. The term gustatory hallucination is indebted to the Latin noun gustus,which means taste. It is used to denote a taste sensation occurring in the absence of an appropriate tas tant.… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
cacogeusia — The term cacogeusia comes from the Greek adjective kakos (bad, unpleasant) and the Latin noun gustum (taste). It translates as bad taste . It is used to denote a * gustatory hallucination or illusion presenting in the form of an unpleasant… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
olfactory hallucination — Also known as phantosmia, phantom smell, and hallucination of smell. The term olfactory hallucination is indebted to the Latin verb ol(e)facere, which means to smell. Using source localization as a guiding principle, olfactory hallucinations… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
cacosmia — The term cacosmia comes from the Greek words kakos (bad, unpleasant) and osmè (smell, stink, fragrant, odour, scent, perfume). It translates as bad smell . The term cacosmia is used to denote an * olfactory hallucination or illusion presenting … Dictionary of Hallucinations
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Monell Chemical Senses Center — Established 1968 Director Gary Beauchamp Location Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Address 3500 Market Street Website … Wikipedia