- animals and hallucinations
- It has been suggested that not only humans but also other animals possess the capacity to hallucinate. Although hallucinatory phenomena experienced by animals are even less accessible to scientific research than those in humans, field and laboratory observations of animal reactions to psychoactive substances have led researchers to conclude that animals have the capacity not only to hallucinate but also to develop cravings for and addictions to psychoactive plants and other substances. However, the German-American biological psychologist and philosopher Heinrich Klüver (1897-1979) and others have warned against premature conclusions in this area of research. As noted by Klüver, who carried out numerous experiments with both " psychotomimetic substances and animals, "I am unfortunately aware that the literature nowadays is full of 'hallucinated' cats and monkeys. But a monkey grabbing into the air under the influence of a supposedly 'hallucinogenic' substance does not necessarily grab for hallucinated objects; a monkey who scratches himself does not necessarily itch, and when sticking out his tongue rhythmically does not necessarily have paresthesias. It requires evidence of a sort not easily obtainable to justify such inferences from motor movements or objectively observable changes." Animals whose body parts or excretions are known to produce " hallucinogenic effects in humans are referred to as " psychoactive fauna.ReferencesKlüver, H. (1965). Neurobiology of normal and abnormal perception.In: Psychopathology of perception. Edited by Hoch, P.H., Zubin, J. New York, NY: Grune & Stratton.Siegel, R.K., Jarvik, M.E. (1975). Drug-induced hallucinations in animals and man. In: Hallucinations. Behavior, experience, and theory. Edited by Siegel, R.K., West, L.J. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Dictionary of Hallucinations. J.D. Blom. 2010.
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childhood and hallucinations — Hallucinations occurring during childhood have been reported in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Arguably the most intriguing type of hallucination reported in 13 22% of healthy children around 4 years of age, and in about 45% of… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
bufotenine and hallucinations — Bufotenine is also known as bufotenin, dimethyl serotonin, 5 OH dimethyltryptamine (5 OH DMT), N,N dimethyl 5 hydroxytryptamine, and mappine. The name bufotenine was suggested in 1893 by the French scientists Césaire Auguste Phisalix (1852… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
absinthism and hallucinations — The term absinthism is indebted to the French noun absinthe, which in turn derives from the Greek noun apsinthion (wormwood). It has various connotations, referring either to the habitual ingestion of absinth or to a group of symptoms… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
alkaloids and hallucinations — The term alkaloid is indebted to the Latin noun alkali, which in turn stems from the classic Arabic expression al qily, commonly translated as he roasted , or he grilled . The expression al qily is said to refer to the scorched ashes of the… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
old age and hallucinations — In biomedicine the notion of old age tends to refer to the age group of 65 years and older. Within the group of non institutionalized individuals thus defined, the mean incidence and prevalence of hallucinations are somewhat higher than in the … Dictionary of Hallucinations
Parkinson's disease and hallucinations — The eponym Parkinson s disease refers to the British physician James Parkinson (1755 1824), who has been credited with being the first to describe the concomitant disease in 1817. The eponym itself was coined during the 1870s by the French… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and hallucinations — Dimethyltryptamine is also known as dimethyl tryptamin, N,N dimethyltryptamine, nigerin, nigerine, and nigerina. All six names are used more or less interchangeably to denote a hallucinogenic tryptamine belonging to the group of indole… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
Hallucinations in those who are not mentally ill — A hallucination may occur in a person in a state of good mental and physical health, even in the apparent absence of a transient trigger factor such as fatigue, intoxication or sensory deprivation.It is not yet widely recognised that… … Wikipedia
Hallucinations in the sane — A hallucination may occur in a person in a state of good mental and physical health, even in the apparent absence of a transient trigger factor such as fatigue, intoxication, or sensory deprivation.It is not yet widely recognised that… … Wikipedia
perceptual release theory of hallucinations — Also referred to as dream intrusion, dual input model, and seepage theory. The term perceptual release theory was introduced in or shortly before 1958 by the American psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West (1924 1999) to denote a hypothetical model… … Dictionary of Hallucinations